In recent times, the ethical and environmental consequences of consumer choices have taken center stage, leading to an increased call for supply chain transparency in various products, including merino wool.

Merino wool, a natural, eco-friendly, and renewable resource, is prized for its remarkable softness, breathability, and moisture-absorbing capabilities. Nonetheless, concerns surrounding animal welfare and sustainability have cast a shadow on its production.

This blog post delves into the journey towards ethically sourced merino wool products and examines the ways both companies and consumers can foster a greener and more responsible industry.

Understanding the Issues

To better appreciate the journey to ethical sourcing of merino wool products, it’s essential to understand the primary concerns that have been raised. Two main issues have garnered attention: mulesing and the overall treatment of the animals.

  1. Mulesing

Mulesing is a controversial practice in which the skin around the Merino sheep’s breech and tail area is removed to prevent flystrike, a painful and potentially fatal condition caused by flies laying eggs in the folds of the sheep’s skin. This procedure is often carried out without anesthesia, causing significant distress and pain to the animal. Mulesing has been widely criticized by animal rights organizations and the public alike.

  1. Overall Animal Welfare

Animal welfare concerns extend beyond mulesing. The treatment of sheep throughout their lives, including access to food, water, and shelter, as well as how they are handled and transported, has raised questions about the ethical production of merino wool.

Merino Sheep - New Zealand
Merino Sheep – New Zealand

The Path to Ethical Sourcing

As awareness of these issues has grown, industry stakeholders have taken steps to address these concerns and work towards more ethical sourcing of merino wool products. Some key initiatives and certifications have emerged to promote better animal welfare and sustainable practices.

  1. Non-Mulesed Wool

One of the most significant steps towards ethical sourcing has been the shift to non-mulesed wool. Non-mulesed wool comes from sheep that have not undergone the mulesing procedure.

Some farms have adopted alternative flystrike prevention methods, such as crutching (trimming the wool around the breech area) and breeding sheep with fewer skin folds.

Certifications such as the Responsible Wool Standard (RWS) and the New Merino Certification Program ensure that wool comes from farms where mulesing is not practiced. These certifications also encompass other animal welfare criteria, promoting higher standards in the industry.

  1. Traceability and Transparency

Another crucial aspect of ethical sourcing is traceability and transparency in the supply chain.

Consumers want to know where their products come from and how they were produced. Various initiatives have emerged to provide this information.

One example is the ZQ Merino Standard, which offers a traceability system that tracks wool from the farm to the final product. This standard also addresses environmental management, social responsibility, and animal welfare, ensuring a comprehensive approach to ethical sourcing.

  1. Sustainability

Sustainable farming practices are essential in ensuring the long-term viability of the merino wool industry.

The Sustainable Merino Assurance Program (SMAP) is an example of a certification that focuses on environmental stewardship, including water and soil management, biodiversity conservation, and reducing greenhouse gas emissions.

  1. Collaboration and Innovation

Collaboration between industry stakeholders, including wool growers, processors, manufacturers, and retailers, is critical in driving positive change.

Initiatives such as Textile Exchange’s Responsible Wool Round Table and the International Wool Textile Organization’s (IWTO) Sustainability Framework provide platforms for stakeholders to share knowledge and best practices, fostering innovation in ethical sourcing.

Sustainable Fashion
Sustainable Fashion

How Companies are Making a Difference

Many companies have taken a proactive approach to ensuring the ethical sourcing of their merino wool products. From working with certified suppliers to investing in innovative solutions, these companies demonstrate their commitment to responsible production.

  1. Icebreaker

Outdoor clothing company Icebreaker is a pioneer in the ethical sourcing of merino wool. They have built long-term relationships with merino wool growers who adhere to strict animal welfare and environmental standards.

Icebreaker’s Transparency Report provides in-depth information on their supply chain, reinforcing their commitment to transparency.

  1. Patagonia

Patagonia is well-known for its dedication to sustainability and ethical sourcing. They only use non-mulesed merino wool in their products and work with suppliers certified by the Responsible Wool Standard.

Patagonia also invests in regenerative agriculture initiatives, aiming to reduce the environmental impact of their wool production.

  1. Smartwool

Smartwool is committed to using ZQ-certified merino wool, ensuring high animal welfare standards and traceability throughout their supply chain.

They also partner with organizations like The Nature Conservancy to support the conservation of critical habitats and promote sustainable land management practices.

  1. Allbirds

Footwear company Allbirds has made a name for itself with sustainable, ethical materials, including merino wool.

They use ZQ-certified wool in their products, and their commitment to transparency extends to publishing the carbon footprint of each product they sell.

Organic Wool Cloth on Rack

How Consumers Can Contribute

As consumers, we play a vital role in supporting the ethical sourcing of merino wool products. Here are a few ways to make a difference:

  1. Choose products made from non-mulesed wool or those certified by recognized standards, such as the Responsible Wool Standard or ZQ Merino Standard.
  2. Look for brands that prioritize transparency and provide information about their supply chain and production practices.
  3. Support companies that invest in sustainable farming practices, regenerative agriculture, and innovative solutions to reduce their environmental impact.
  4. Educate yourself about the issues surrounding ethical sourcing and engage in conversations with friends, family, and social media networks to raise awareness.


The path towards ethically sourced merino wool products is a continuous journey. Notably, recent years have seen considerable advancements as both companies and consumers increasingly emphasize animal welfare, sustainability, and transparency.

By backing conscientious brands and making well-informed decisions, we can collectively foster a more ethical and eco-friendly merino wool sector.

United in this effort, we can guarantee that future generations can appreciate the unparalleled natural attributes of merino wool without sacrificing the health of the animals or our planet.

Marco Heitner

Marco is the author and creator of the World’ and holds the "Wool Fibre Science" certification. He founded this website because of his love for nature, tradition and exquisite all-natural fibers like merino wool, cashmere, and alpaca. The way local communities interact with their environment and produce valuable, irreplaceable natural resources such as wool is inspiring.


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